What Is An Operating System ?
An Operating System is an interface between the user and the computer hardware. It is the system software that helps user to execute programs efficiently. As we know that there are three types of software i.e, System, Application and Language Processor.
User can’t directly communicate with hardware so it requires some sort of system software. In case of linux it is kernel. In order to run any program it is a must for a computer to have operating system.
History of Operating System
OS were first developed in the late 1950s to manage tape storage. IBM implemented the first Operating System in the early 1950s. OS started to use disks in the mid-1960s and the first OS built by Microsoft was DOS. In present we are using OS Windows which first came to existence in 1985.
|Generations of computers||Generations timeline||Evolving hardware|
|First generation||1940s-1950s||Vacuum tube based|
|Second generation||1950s-1960s||Transistor based|
|Third generation||1960s-1970s||Integrated circuit based|
|Fourth generation||1970s-present||Microprocessor based|
|Fifth generation||The present and the future||Artificial intelligence based|
Function of Operating System (OS)
- Memory Management – It refers to the management of primary memory i.e. RAM(Random Access Memory) and ROM(Read Only Memory). OS decide which process need more memory space and allocate it. CPU decides which process will run first.
- Process Management – It helps OS to manage process such as deleting and creating processes.
- Device Management – It keeps track of all devices connected to the system. There are two types of devices i.e., input and output.
- File Management – OS can perform different actions on the file. It manipulates, stores, retrieves, and saves data.
- Security – OS contains module which protects from virus, threat and unauthorized access.
- Error handling – OS handles the error and take preventive measures whenever it requires to avoid errors.
- Coordination between other software and users – It provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI)