Introduction To Operating System

What Is An Operating System ?

An Operating System is an interface between the user and the computer hardware. It is the system software that helps user to execute programs efficiently. As we know that there are three types of software i.e, System, Application and Language Processor.

User can’t directly communicate with hardware so it requires some sort of system software. In case of linux it is kernel. In order to run any program it is a must for a computer to have operating system.

History of Operating System

OS were first developed in the late 1950s to manage tape storage. IBM implemented the first Operating System in the early 1950s. OS started to use disks in the mid-1960s and the first OS built by Microsoft was DOS. In present we are using OS Windows which first came to existence in 1985.

Generations of computersGenerations timelineEvolving hardware
First generation1940s-1950sVacuum tube based
Second generation1950s-1960sTransistor based
Third generation1960s-1970sIntegrated circuit based
Fourth generation1970s-presentMicroprocessor based
Fifth generationThe present and the futureArtificial intelligence based

Function of Operating System (OS)

  • Memory Management – It refers to the management of primary memory i.e. RAM(Random Access Memory) and ROM(Read Only Memory). OS decide which process need more memory space and allocate it. CPU decides which process will run first.
  • Process Management – It helps OS to manage process such as deleting and creating processes.
  • Device Management – It keeps track of all devices connected to the system. There are two types of devices i.e., input and output.
  • File Management – OS can perform different actions on the file. It manipulates, stores, retrieves, and saves data.
  • Security – OS contains module which protects from virus, threat and unauthorized access.
  • Error handling – OS handles the error and take preventive measures whenever it requires to avoid errors.
  • Coordination between other software and users – It provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI)
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