Process Concept In Operating System

What Is A Process ?

Process Concept: A process is a program in execution. When we code something to get desired output we call the code as program and the execution of the program as process. A process is an active entity and program is a passive entity.

When a program is executed then it becomes a process. The process memory is divided into 4 parts:

  • Stack: It is a form of memory mechanism which is used to store local variables. Stack contains temporary data.
  • Text section: It contains compiled code, which is read in non-volatile memory.
  • Heap: It is used for dynamic memory allocation.
  • Data: It contains the global and static variables.

Attributes of a process:

  • Process Id – Unique Identifier given by OS
  • Process State – Running, Ready, etc.
  • CPU registers – It must be saved and restored.
  • Accounts information – Amounts of CPU used.
  • I/O status information – Device allocated to the process.
  • CPU scheduling information – Priority given to a process.


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